The article was originally published in Lambdatest's blog here.
The performance of any website or application is crucial since it directly affects user happiness and engagement. Users expect a website or program to load swiftly and respond to their interactions seamlessly. However, as websites and applications get more complex and functional, ensuring optimal performance has become increasingly difficult.
One of the most important ways to measure and improve performance is through the use of client-side performance metrics. These metrics can assist identify areas for improvement and provide vital insight into how a website or application is working from the user's perspective.
Several key client-side performance metrics are commonly used to evaluate performance, including:
Largest Contentful Paint (LCP): This metric measures the time it takes for the page's largest text or image element to load and render. It is said to be a useful measure of when a page's core content is seen by the user.
For example: Imagine a news website where the main content is text-based articles. The LCP metric would measure the time it takes for the largest text element, such as the headline, to load and be rendered on the page. If this takes a long time, it could indicate that the website has slow loading times or poor optimization.
Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS): This metric counts the overall amount of layout shifting that occurs on a page. This can involve unexpected element movement, changes in element layout, and other visual disruptions.
For example: Imagine a website that has several advertisements that load as the user scrolls down the page. If the advertisements load and cause elements on the page to shift around unexpectedly, it could result in a high CLS score. This would indicate that the website has poor layout stability, and could be causing a poor user experience.
Time to Interactive (TTI): This metric determines how long it takes for a page to become fully interactive for the user. This comprises not only loading the main content but also running any necessary scripts and allowing the user to interact with the website.
For example: Imagine a website with a landing page that has several large images, videos, and animations. The TTI metric would measure the time it takes for the page to become fully interactive for the user, including not only the loading of the main content but also the execution of any necessary scripts and the ability for the user to interact with the page. If this time is high, it could indicate that the website has slow load times or heavy scripts that are delaying interactivity.
You may get a better picture of how your website or application is working and spot areas for development by tracking and analyzing these metrics.
To improve performance, use tactics like code splitting, lazy loading, and the use of service workers to reduce the initial load time of the site. You can also improve the performance of your website or application by employing browser caching, reducing the amount of HTTP requests, and optimizing graphics.
A good way to visualize these metrics is through browser performance tools like the browser's dev tools, webpagetest, or Lighthouse. These tools can provide a breakdown of the different performance metrics, including the ones mentioned above, and can help you identify areas of improvement.
There are various techniques and tactics you can use to optimize key areas of the user experience to increase the speed of your website or application. Here are a few pointers:
Image optimization is one of the most essential strategies to increase performance. This can be accomplished by lowering image file sizes, using the suitable file format, and properly scaling images. For example, JPEG can be used for photographs while PNG can be used for images with transparent backgrounds. Additionally, employing a tool like ImageOptim or Kraken.io can assist you in optimizing photographs by compressing them without sacrificing quality.
Progressive Images: Progressive images are a type of image file that loads in multiple stages, starting with a low-resolution version and then gradually increasing in quality. This allows the user to instantly see a rough rendition of the image rather than having to wait for the full-resolution image to load. This can help enhance a website's or application's perceived performance and deliver a better user experience. The below image helps you to understand normal image vs progressive image:
Modern Extensions: Modern image extensions like webp, jpeg2000, and jpeg-xr can provide better image compression and thus reduce the size of the image file. This can help reduce the load time of a website or application and improve its performance. There is also a detailed article here on how to generate nextgen images.
Preloading Images: Preloading images is a technique where a website or application loads images in the background before they are needed. This can help reduce the load time of a website or application and improve its performance, as the images will be ready to display when the user needs them.
<link as="image" rel="preload" href="https://images.ctfassets.net/57ehn7fu4651/5IZUfISCJ8X3Lfy4ZuWu5Y/f292629c086005f7fbba67ec4a65707a/thoughtworks.png?fl=progressive&h=100&w=400">
Lazy Loading: Lazy loading is a technique where images are only loaded when
visibleon the user's screen. This can help improve the performance of a website or application by reducing the amount of data that needs to be loaded initially, and only loading images as the user scrolls down the page.
<img loading='lazy' src="./assets/thoughtworks.webp" alt='he_sitting_with_notebook'/>
Asynchronous Loading: Asynchronous loading is a technique where resources are loaded in parallel, rather than in sequential order. This can help improve the performance of a website or application by reducing the load time of the page, as multiple resources can be loaded at the same time.
<img decoding='async' src="./assets/thoughtworks.webp" alt='he_sitting_with_notebook'/>
Fetch Priority: This technique allows you to set a priority for the resources to be loaded first. This can help improve the performance of a website or application by ensuring that the most important resources are loaded first, and the less important resources are loaded later. It's still
experimentalso check the browser compatibility table before using it in production.
<img fetchPriority='high' src="./assets/thoughtworks.webp" alt='he_sitting_with_notebook'/>
Font optimization is another key part of the performance. This can be accomplished by using web fonts rather than system fonts and decreasing the number of font files that must be loaded. Additionally, strategies such as font-display: switch; can help ensure that text is shown as soon as the web fonts are loaded.
FOUC (Flash of Unstyled Content): FOUC refers to a visual issue that arises when a web page is loading and the text is displayed in a default font before the custom font is loaded. This can result in the text appearing in a different font for a small period of time, which can be confusing for users. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including delayed custom font loading times or inadequate implementation of the custom font on the website or application.
Below are some optimization techniques that one can follow to resolve any FOUC that might occur.
- Pre-Connect: Pre-connect is a technique that enables the browser to connect to a font server before the font is required. This can assist minimize the amount of time it takes for a website or application to launch by minimizing the time it takes for the custom font to be loaded.
<link rel="preconnect" href="https://fonts.googleapis.com">
- Pre-Load: Pre-load is a technique that allows the browser to load a custom font before it is needed.
<link rel="preload" as="font" href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css2?family=Dancing+Script&family=Seymour+One&display=swap" rel="stylesheet">
Preloading of fonts should be used very cautiously as it may take time away from other important resources to load, so it is better to inline fonts or otherwise preload fonts that are important when using external stylesheets.
- Self-Hosting vs Google Fonts: Self-hosting is when you host the font files on your server while using Google Fonts is when you load the font files from the Google Fonts servers. Self-hosting can provide better control over the fonts and can improve performance, but it requires more maintenance and it can be more expensive. While using Google Fonts can be easier and cheaper, it can rely on third-party servers which can lead to slower loading times and less control over the fonts.
<link rel="preload" href="/assets/dancing-script-all-600-normal-6396f243.woff" as="font" type="font/woff2" crossorigin />
It is recommended to use self-hosted fonts when you are using a Content Delivery Network and HTTP/2 as per chromeDevRel.
Eliminating Render-Blocking Resources:
Inline Stylesheets: Inlining stylesheets is a technique in which CSS styles are added directly to HTML components rather than linking to a separate stylesheet. Removing the requirement for the browser to send a separate request for the stylesheet, can help to reduce render-blocking resources. This can help lower a website's or application's load time and improve its performance.
Reduce Stylesheets: Reducing the number of stylesheets can also assist in the removal of render-blocking resources. By combining numerous stylesheets into a single file, you can reduce the number of server requests, which can assist improve the efficiency of a website or application.
Defer Non-Critical CSS: Deferring non-critical CSS is a technique in which you load only the styles required for the page's initial viewport and then load the other styles as the user scrolls down the page. This can assist remove render-blocking resources by lowering the amount of CSS that needs to be loaded initially, which can enhance a website's or application's performance.
Remove Unused CSS: Removing unused CSS is a strategy that involves removing any CSS styles that are no longer in use on the website or application.
Modify/Compress CSS: CSS modification and compression is a technique that involves minifying the CSS code and removing any extraneous white space and comments. Lowering the size of the CSS file can assist reduce render-blocking resources and enhance the performance of a website or application.
External Libraries: Removing superfluous external libraries can also aid in the removal of render-blocking resources. This can be accomplished by eliminating any libraries that are no longer being utilized on the website or application, or by using a smaller, lighter library that does the same functions.
Better Layout Shift Handling:
You may improve layout shift handling by scaling items with CSS rather than HTML attributes and controlling element layout with the CSS position property. Additionally, you can utilize the will-change attribute to notify the browser about an element's intended change, which can assist prevent unexpected layout adjustments.
Image dimensions: Providing image dimensions can help prevent layout shifts by allowing the browser to reserve the necessary space for the image before it is loaded. This means that the layout of the page will not shift when the image is loaded, which can improve the stability of the layout and provide a better user experience.
Reserve Ad spots: Reserve ad spots are a technique where you reserve a specific area on the page for ads, rather than letting them load anywhere on the page. This can help prevent layout shifts by ensuring that ads will not cause unexpected layout changes, which can improve the stability of the layout and provide a better user experience.
Prefer Transform Animations: Preferring transform animations is a technique where you use CSS transformations, such as scale and translate, to animate elements on the page, rather than using layout changes, such as width and height. This can help prevent layout shifts by ensuring that animations will not cause unexpected layout changes, which can improve the stability of the layout and provide a better user experience.
Caching can improve the performance of a website or application by reducing the number of requests that need to be made to the server. This can be done by using techniques like browser caching and server-side caching. Additionally, using a service worker to cache resources can help improve the performance of a website or application even when the user is offline.
Different Cache Needs: Different caching strategies can be used to improve the performance of a website or application, depending on the specific needs of the website or application. For example, a website or application that has a lot of static content, such as images and videos, may benefit from using a CDN (Content Delivery Network) to cache the content. On the other hand, a website or application that has a lot of dynamic content, such as user-generated content, may benefit from using server-side caching to cache the content.
CDN (Content Delivery Network): A CDN is a network of servers that are distributed around the world, which can be used to cache static content, such as images, videos, and stylesheets. By using a CDN, you can reduce the load on your servers and improve the performance of your website or application by ensuring that the content is delivered from a server that is geographically close to the user.
Cache headers & ETag: Cache headers and ETag are used to control the caching of a website or application. Cache headers can be used to specify how long a resource should be cached and if it should be revalidated. ETag is a value that is associated with a specific version of a resource, which can be used to determine if the resource has been modified since it was last requested. By using cache headers and ETag, you can control the caching of a website or application, which can help reduce the load on your servers and improve the performance of your website or application.
Service Worker: A service worker is a script that runs in the background and allows you to control how resources are cached in the browser. This means that you can cache resources and serve them offline, which can help improve the performance of your website or application, especially when the user is offline.
Browser caching: Browser caching is another caching strategy that can be used to improve the performance of a website or application. This technique is used to store resources in the browser's cache, which can be used to serve the resources from the cache instead of requesting them from the server again. This can help reduce the load on your server and improve the performance of your website or application.
By following these techniques, you can improve the performance of your website or application and provide a better user experience. However, it is important to note that performance optimization is an ongoing process, and you should continually monitor and analyze the performance metrics of your website or application to identify areas for improvement.
The optimization of performance is an important part of website and application development. You can uncover opportunities for improvement by monitoring and analyzing client-side performance indicators. Image optimization, typeface optimization, reducing render-blocking resources, better layout shift handling, and caching can all help you improve the efficiency and user experience of your website or application. You may optimize the performance of your website or application and guarantee that consumers are satisfied with their experience by following the above techniques.